The

**Pauli exclusion principle** is a quantum mechanical

? principle formulated by the Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli

? in 1925. In its simplest form for

electrons in a single

atom, it states that no two

electrons can have the same four

quantum numbers; that is, if

*n*,

*l*, and

*m*_{l} are the same,

*m*_{s} must be different such that the

electrons have opposite

spins. More generally, no two identical

fermions (particles with half-integer

spin) may occupy the same

quantum state simultaneously. A more rigorous statement of this principle is that for two identical

fermions, the total

wavefunction is anti-symmetric.

In contrast, integer

spin particles,

bosons, are not subject to the

**Pauli exclusion principle**. For

bosons, any number of identical particles can occupy the same

quantum state, as with, for instance, lasers and Bose-Einstein condensation

?. (wikipedia)

See Also

**Enharmonic**
**Fermion**
**Figure 14.07 - Love Principle: Two sympathetic waves expanding from two points have one coincident centering locus**
**Harmonic**
**Polarity**
**Principle of Polarity**
**Principle of Regeneration**