Mathematically speaking, a gluon
is the least quantity of attractive force
or smallest unit of syntropy
A massless, neutral vector boson
that mediates strong interactions between quarks
, binding them together within hadrons?
- - carrier particles for strong interactions (color force fields of quarks).
- - gauge boson that mediates strong interaction among quarks.
- - has color charge (Strong Force)
- - is a boson
- - integer spin particle
- - do not follow the Pauli exclusion principle.
- - does NOT participate in weak interactions
An integral spin particle to which Bose-Einstien statistics?
apply. Such particles do not follow the Pauli exclusion principle
, alpha particles
, and nuclei of even mass numbers are examples of bosons
are carrier particles for Strong Force
interactions (color force fields of quarks
- a gauge boson
that mediates strong interaction among quarks
In physics, gluons
are the elementary particles which are responsible for the strong nuclear force
. They bind quarks
together to form protons
as well as other hadrons
; their electric charge is zero, their spin
is 1 and they are generally assumed to have zero mass
are ultimately responsible for the stability of atomic nuclei.
In quantum chromodynamics
(QCD), today's accepted theory for the description of the strong nuclear force
are exchanged when particles with a color charge
interact. When two quarks
exchange a gluon
, their color charges
change; the gluon
carries an anti-color charge to compensate for the quark
's old color charge
, as well as the quark
's new color charge
. Since gluons
thus carry a color charge
themselves, they can also interact with other gluons
, which makes the mathematical analysis of the strong nuclear force quite complicated and difficult. Even though there are theoretically nine unique color combinations for gluons
(r-ar, r-ag, r-ab, g-ar, g-ag, g-ab, b-ar, b-ag, and b-ab), due to the subtleties of SU(3) symmetry there are only eight different gluons
The first experimental traces of gluons
were found in the early 1980s at the electron-positron-collider PETRA at the DESY in Hamburg, when evidence for a clear three-jet structure was found; the third jet was attributed to one of the produced quarks
emitting a gluon
Strong Interaction Force
It turns out that some particles (quarks
) have a type of charge
that isn't electromagnetic; rather, it is called color charge
. The force between color-charged particles is very strong, earning it the name Strong Force
. Because this force holds quarks
together to form hadrons
, its carrier particles are whimsically called gluons
because they so successfully "glue" the quarks
It is important to note that only quarks
have color charge
(such as protons
) are color neutral, as are leptons
. For this reason, the strong force only acts on the really small level of quark
are color-charged particles. Just as electrically-charged particles interact by exchanging photons
, color-charged particles exchange gluons
in strong interactions. In so doing, these color-charged particles are often "glued" together.
The main difference between strong and electromagnetic interactions is the fact that the strong force-carrier particles (the gluons
) themselves carry color charge
, on the other hand, have no color charge
Two or more quarks
close to each other rapidly exchange gluons
, creating a very strong "color force field" binding the quarks
together. There are three color charges, and three corresponding anti-color (complementary color) charges. Quarks
constantly change their color charge
as they exchange gluons
with other quarks
has one of the three color charges; and each anti-quark has one of the three complementary color charges. Gluons
carry color/anti-color pairs (they don't necessary have to be the same color; i.e.. red / anti-blue gluons
are legal). While there are 9 possible combinations of color/anti-color pairs, due to symmetry considerations one of these combinations is eliminated. A gluon
can effectively carry one of eight possible color/anti-color combinations.
Anti-quarks carry anti-color.
carry color and anti-color.
(From the above three lines we can presume the quark is the syntropic third, the anti-quark is the entropic third while the gluon is the neutral third - as per Keely's concept of thirds
Color-charged particles cannot be found individually. For this reason, the color-charge quarks
are confined in groups (hadrons) with other quarks
. These composites are color neutral.
Not until the development of the Standard Model's theory of the strong interactions could physicists explain why the quarks
combine only into baryons
(three quark objects), and mesons?
(quark-antiquark objects), but not, for example, four quark
objects. Now we understand that only those combinations are color neutral. Particles such as ud
that cannot be combined into color-neutral states are never observed experimentally.
How does color charge work?
is always conserved. Therefore, when a quark
emits or absorbs a gluon
, that quark
's color must change in order to conserve color charge
. For example, suppose a "red" quark
changes into a "blue" quark
and emits a "red/anti-blue" gluon
. The net color is still "red."
emit and absorb gluons
very frequently within a hadron
, so there is no way to observe the color of an individual quark
. Within a hadron
, though, the color of the two quarks
exchanging a gluon
will change in a way that keeps the bound system in a color-neutral state, so it will stay observable.
in a given hadron
madly exchange gluons
. For this reason, physicists talk about the color-force field which consists of the gluons
holding the bunch of quarks
If one of the quarks
in a given hadron
is pulled away from its neighbors, the color-force field "stretches" between that quark
and its neighbors. In so doing, more and more energy is added to the color-force field as the quarks
are pulled apart. At some point, it is energetically cheaper for the color-force field to "snap" into two new quarks
. In so doing, energy
is conserved because the energy
of the color-force field is converted into the mass
of the new quarks
, and the color-force field can "relax" back to an unstretched state.
cannot exist individually because they must maintain a color-force field with other quarks
. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.)
7B.18 - Sympathetic Negative Attraction
8.12 - Law of Attraction
9.4 - Law of Attraction
14.12 - Sympathetic Attraction
Law of Assimilation
Law of Attraction
Law of Attraction and Repulsion
Mind Force is a pre-existing Natural Force
polar negative attraction