Keelys Contributions to Science

Keely and His Discoveries, Chapter XI - 1890


An infinitely subtle substance, out of which all other substances are constituted, in varying forms, passes back again into simplicity. The same principle underlies the harmonies of music and the motion of heavenly bodies. Pythagoras.

One of the most arduous problems is that of energies acting at distances. Are they real? Of all those that appear uncontrollable, one only remains, gravitation. Will it escape up also? The laws of its action incline us to think so. The nature of electricity is another problem which recalls us to the condition of electric and magnetic force through space. Behind this question arises the most important problem of all, that of the nature and properties of the substance which fills space;- the ether,- its structure, its motion, its limits, if it possesses any. We find this subject or research, day by day, predominating over all others. It seems as though a knowledge of ether should not only reveal to us the nature of that imponderable substance, but will unveil to us the essence of matter itself and of its inherent properties, weight and inertia. Soon the question set by modern physics will be, "Are not all things due to conditions of ether?" That is the ultimate end of our science; these are the most exalted summits to which we can hope to attain. Shall we ever reach them? Will it be soon? We cannot answer.- Prof. Henri Hertz, in La Revue Scientifique, October 26, 1888.

In the long delay attendant upon the application to mechanics of the unknown force which John Ernest Worrell Keely has discovered in the field of vibration, the question is often heard, "What has Keely done?" with the remark, "He has never done anything; he is always promising to do something, but he never keeps his promises."

Let us see what Keely, in his researches, has done for science; although, as yet, he has done nothing for commerce.

We are quick to forget the experience of history, which show what a length of time has invariably elapsed between the discovery of a new force and its use in mechanics. Watt commenced his experiments on the elastic force of steam? in 1764, obtaining about forty pounds total pressure per square inch. (It has been stated that it was thirty years before he succeeded in perfecting his safety-valve, or governor?, which made it possible to use steam? without running great risks.) Fifth years later, in 1814, the first steam locomotive? was built; but it was not until 1825 that the locomotive? was used for traffic-travelling at a speed of from six to eight miles in an hour. Keely commenced his experiments with other in the winter of 1872-73, showing a pressure of two thousands pounds per square inch. It does not look now as though half a century would elapse before Keely's discovery will supersede steam? in travel and traffic. In experimenting with ether, he has shown, from time to time, since 1873, a pressure of from twenty thousand to thirty-two thousand per square inch; but he was occupied many years in his researches before he obtained sufficient control over the ether to prevent the explosion which made wrecks of his machines, bursting iron and steel pipes, twelve inches in circumference, as if they were straws. He has now arrived at a stage in his experimental research in which he can, without danger of explosions, exhibit to scientists such manifestations of an unknown force as to place him before the world where he would have stood many years ago, had it not been for the calumnious attacks of those men of science who found it easier to denounce him than to account for the phenomenon which they witnessed in his workshop.

Professor Ira Remsen?, in his "Theoretical Chemistry," writes, "As regards the cause of the phenomena of the motion of the heavenly bodies, we have no conception at the present day. It is true we say that these phenomena are caused by the 'attraction of gravitation' but, after all, we do not know what pulls these bodies together."

Let us see what Keely knows on its subject?

1st. After a lifetime of research into the laws governing vibrations, which develop this force, Keely is able to demonstrate partial control of the power that he has discovered, - a power which he believes to be the governing medium of the universe, throughout animate and inanimate nature, controlling the advance and recession of the solar and planetary masses, and reigning in the mineral, the vegetable, and the animal kingdom, according to the laws that rule its action in each, as undeviatingly as it governs the motions of the earth itself, and of all the heavenly bodies in space.

Keely calls this power, which he is endeavouring to apply in mechanics for the benefit of mankind, "sympathetic negative attraction," - it being necessary to use the word "attraction," as no other word has yet been coined to take its place.

2nd. He has determined and written out a system of the vibratory conditions governing the aggregation of all molecular masses, as to their relation sympathetically one to the other, stating the conditions to be brought about in order to induce antagonism or repellent action, disintegration, etc. but he has not yet been able to control the operation of his Disintegrator so as to use it with safety to the operator, for mining purposes, etc.

3rd. He has proved by demonstration that the subdivision of matter under different orders of progressive vibration evolves by such subdivision entirely new and distinct elements, too multiple to enumerate. He has systematized the proper vibratory chords, progressively, from the introductory molecular to the interetheric, embracing seven distinct orders of triple subdivision. He has elaborated a system of inducing sympathetic negative attraction on metallic masses, with great range of motion, and instant depolarization of the same by vibratory change of their neutral centers. Keely controls the transmissions of these sympathetic streams by a medium of high molecular density, viz., drawn wires of differentiated metals: gold, silver, platinum, German silver, etc. In some recent experiments he took apart, for inspection of its interior construction, the instruments which he has invented for the production of the force, cutting the wires with which he had operated in sympathetic attraction and propulsion, and distributing the fragments to those who were present, among whom was Professor Leidy?, to whom the Geological Society of London has awarded the Lyell Medal, and the Academy of Science of France the Cuvier Prize.

4th. Keely has discovered that all sympathetic streams, cerebellic, gravital, magnetic, and electric, are composed of triple flows; this fact governing all the terrestrial and celestial orders of positive and negative radiation. In gravity it would be more correct to speak of triple connective links, as there is no flow of gravity.

5th. Keely has discovered and was the first to demonstrate that electricity has never been handled; that it is not merely a force or a form of energy, - that it is matter; and that what we call electricity, and have diverted for commercial use in electric lighting, is but one of the triune currents, harmonic, enharmonic, and diatonic, which are united in pure electricity; that the enharmonic current seems to be sympathetically and mysteriously associated with the dominant current; and that the dominant current can no more be brought under control than can the lightning itself. The diversion of the dominant current would mean destruction to any mechanical medium used for that purpose, and death to the operator. The intense heat evolved by the electric stream Keely attributes to the velocity of the triple subdivision at the point of dispersion, as each triple seeks its medium of affinity. Sudden unition induces the same effect; but demonstration shows that the concentration of this triple force is as free of percussion as is the breath of an infant against the atmosphere; for the three currents flow together as in one stream, in the mildest sympathetic way, while their discharge after concentration is, in comparison to their accumulation, as the tornado's force to the waft of the butterfly's wing. The enharmonic current of this triple stream, Keely thinks, carries with it the power of propulsion that induces disturbance of negative equilibrium; which disturbance is essential to the co-ordination of its flow, in completing the triune stream of electricity. When this fluid is discharged from the clouds, each triplet or third seeks its terrestrial concordant, there to remain until that supreme law which governs disturbance of equilibrium again induces sympathetic concordant concentration, continuing to pass through its evolutions, positively and negatively, until the solar forces are expended.

"My researches have proved to me," writes Keely, "the subtle and pure conditions of the power of negative attraction and positive propulsion?."

6th. These same researches have enabled Keely to pronounce definitely as to the nature of what is recognized as gravity, an ever-existing, eternal force, coexistent with the compound etheric, or high luminous, entering into all forms of aggregated matter at their birth. Keely thinks that gravity is the source from which all visible matter springs, and that the sympathetic or neutral center of such aggregation becomes at birth a connective concordant link to all neutral centers that have preceded it and to all that may succeed it, and that disturbance of equilibrium, like gravity, is an ever-existing force. His researches in the vibratory subdivision of matter have revealed to him some of the mysteries of the hidden sympathetic world, teaching that "the visible world," as Coleridge? wrote, "is but the clothing of the invisible world;" that "true philosophy," as Professor George Bush? said, "when reached will conduct us into the realm of the spiritual as the true region of causes, disclosing new and unthought-of relations between the world of matter and of mind."

Professor Thurston? writes, in the January number of the North American Review?, "We are continually expecting to see a limit reached by the discoverer, and by the inventor, and are as constantly finding that we are simply on a frontier which is being steadily pushed further and further out into the infinite unknown. The border-land is still ahead of us, constantly enlarging as we move on. The more we gain, the more is seen to be achievable."

All planetary masses Keely calls terrestrial, showing in his writing that the beauty of the celestial concordant chords of sympathy forming the harmonious connective link, in what may be denominated "the music of the spheres," is seen in the alternate oscillating range of motion between the planetary systems; for at a certain range of the greater distance, harmony is established, and the attractive forces are brought into action, under the command, "Thus far shalt thou go, and no further." Then in the return towards the neutral centers, when at the nearest point to each other, the opposite or propulsive force is brought into play; and "thus near shalt thou come, and no nearer;" advancing and receding under the celestial law of etheric compensation and restoration, as originally established by the Great Creator.

7th. Keely has constructed instruments by which he is endeavouring to determine the nature of the triune, action of the polar terrestrial stream, or envelope, as regards its vibratory philosophy. He is seeking to demonstrate its sympathetic association with the celestial stream, or luminiferous track, - the compound etheric field, from which all planetary masses spring. He considers the electric stream to be one of the triune sympathetic streams which help to build up, in their order of triple concentration, the high vitality of the polar stream, or, more correctly, the magnetic-electric terrestrial envelope, without which all living organisms would cease to exist. He classes the cohesive force of molecular masses as the dominant order of the electric stream, the molecule owing its negative attractive quality to the magnetic element.

In Keely's beautiful experiments, in antagonizing the polar stream, recently given before men of science, he has copied in his instruments the conditions which Nature has established in all her terrestrial ranges, - conditions necessary in order to equate a state of sympathetic disturbance? for the revitalization of what is continually being displaced by negative dispersion?. These mechanical conditions are principally differential vibratory settings on molecular aggregations of the metallic masses of gold, silver, and platinum.

8th. He has discovered that the range of molecular motion in all quiescent masses is equal to one-third of their diameters, and that all extended range is induced by sound-force, set at chords of the thirds which are antagonistic to the combined chords of the mass of the neutral centers that they represent, no two masses being alike, and that at a certain increased range of molecular motion, induced by the proper acoustic force, the molecules become repellent, and that when the sympathetic centres are influenced by a vibration concordant to the one that exists in themselves, the molecules become attractive; that the repellent condition seems to take place at a distance of about ten of the diameters of the molecules, this distance representing the neutral line? of their attractive force, or the dividing line between the attractive and the repellent. Beyond this line, perfect triple separation takes place; inside of it, perfect attractive association is the result.

The force which Mr. Keely uses in running machinery is the sympathetic attractive?, - the force which, according to his theories, draws the planets together; while in his system of aerial navigation, should he live to perfect it, he will use a negation of this force, - the same that regulates the motion of the planets in their recession from each other. It is the sympathetic attractive? force which keeps the planets subservient to a certain range of motion, between their oscillations. If this condition were broken up, the rotation of planets would cease; if destroyed at a given point of recession, all planets would become wanderers, like the comets; if destroyed at another given point, assimilation would take place, as two bullets fired through the air, meeting, would fuse into one mass. Nature has established her sympathetic concordants from the birth of the neutral centres of the planets, in a manner known only to the Infinite One. This is gravity.

"The music of the spheres" is a reality. "The finer the power the greater the force." Thus, the inaudible atomic, etheric, and interetheric sounds, which control and direct the harmony of the movements of the celestial universe, are the most powerful of all sounds. If our faculty of hearing were a hundred billions of times intensified, we might be able to hear the streams of light as plainly as we now hear the sighings of the wind.

Again, to answer the often-asked question, "What has Keely done?"

9th. He has dislocated joints of his fingers and thumbs, he has broken his ribs, he has had left side paralyzed for weeks, he has lost the sight of one eye for months, in his hand-to-hand fight with the genii that he has encountered, and cannot completely subdue until he has effected the condition of polarization and depolarization which is necessary for the control of rotation and reversions in his commercial engine. An illness of nine weeks followed his abandonment of water in disintegrating; and he was obliged to return to its use, to avoid the percussion that was induced by the rapid vibration of the atmospheric air. To illustrate: if a bullet is fired at a man through a vessel of water a foot thick, the bullet is flattened out without injuring the man; while if nothing intervenes the man is killed. (see Dissociating Water with Microwave)

The question naturally arises, "Are not the forces with which Keely is dealing of too subtle a nature to be harnessed to do the daily work of the world?" Even were it so, the fascination attendant upon his researches would prevent him from abandoning them; but his faith in his ability to accomplish all that he has undertaken to do for the Keely Motor Company and for others is equalled only by the persistent energy which, in the face of gigantic obstacles, of cruel obloquy, of baffled endeavours, leads him to persevere to the end. He believes that the successful result is as positive as are the continued revolutions of our globe, under the great law which governs all Nature's highest, grandest, and most sensitive operations. And when has Nature ever revealed a force save to permit man to subjugate it for the progress of our race?

Another question often heard is, "Why does not Keely make known his discoveries?"

10th. He has written three treaties to explain his system, the titles of which are as follows:_

If these treatises were read from the first page to the last, by men of science, they would not at present be any better understood than were Gilbert?'s writings in his age, author of "De Magnete."

Newton was indebted to Gilbert? for his discovery of the so-called law of gravitation. Keely defines gravity as transmittive interetheric force under immense etheric vibration, and electricity as a certain form of atomic vibration. When Gilbert?, court-physician to Queen Elizabeth, announced his discovery of electricity, he was asked by his compeers of what use it was. No one dreamed then of it as a motive power. He replied, "Of what use is a baby? It may develop into a man or a woman, and, although we cannot make any use of electricity now, the world may in time find out uses for it." Just as little understood would Keely's writings be now on sympathetic negative attraction as were Gilbert?'s writings then on electricity and magnetism. Men found no sense in the words "electric" and "electricity," although derived from the Greek root for amber?. The same fault is found with Keely for coining new words which no one understands.

"Every branches of science, every doctrine of extensive application, has had its alphabet, its rudiments, its grammar: at each fresh step in the path of discovery the researcher has had to work out by experiment the unknown laws which govern his discovery." To attempt to introduce "the world" - even scientists - to any new system without previous preparation would be like giving a Persian book to a man to read who knew nothing of the language. As has been said, we do not expect a complicated problem in the higher mathematical analysis to be solved by one who is ignorant of the elementary rules of arithmetic. Just as useless would it be to expect every scientist to comprehend the laws of etheric physics and etheric philosophy after having witnessed Keely's experiments. The requirement of every demonstration is that it shall give sufficient proof of the truth that it asserts. A demonstration which does less than this cannot be relied upon, and no demonstration ever made has done more. The success of a demonstration is in proportion as the means applied are adequate or inadequate. As different principles exist in various forms of matter, it is quite impossible to demonstrate every truth by the same means or the same principle. It is only the prejudice of ignorance which exacts that every demonstration shall be given by a prescribed canon of science; as if the science of the present were thoroughly conversant with every principle that exists in nature. Yet physicists exact this, though they must know its inadequacy.

Mr. Keely does not expect more from scientists than that they should withhold their defamatory opinions of him until they have witnessed his demonstrations and acquainted themselves with his theories. Yet, notwithstanding Professor Crooke?'s psychical researches and Professor Rucker?'s experiments in molecular vibration, demonstrating that molecules seem to have a "mental attribute, a sort of expression of free will," physicists still look upon the human organism as little more than a machine taking small interest in experiments which evince the dominion of spirit over matter. Keely's researches in this province have shown him that it is neither the electric nor the magnetic flow, but the etheric, which sends its current along our nerves; that the electric and magnetic flows bear but an infinitely small ratio to the etheric flow, both as to velocity and tenuity; that true coincidents can exist between any mediums, - cartilage to steel, steel to wood, wood to stone, and stone to cartilage; that the same influence, sympathetic association, which governs all the solids holds the same control over all liquids, and again from liquid to solid, embracing the three kingdoms, animal, vegetable, and mineral; that the action of mind over matter thoroughly substantiates the incontrovertible laws of sympathetic etheric influence; that the only true medium which exists in nature is the sympathetic flow emanating from the normal human brain, governing correctly the graduating and setting-up of the true sympathetic vibratory positions in machinery, necessary to commercial success; that these flows come in on the order of the fifth and seventh positions of atomic subdivision, compound interetheric sympathy a resultant of this subdivision; that if metallic mediums are brought under the influence of this sympathetic flow they become organisms which carry the same influence with them that the human brain does over living physical positions, and that the composition of metallic and that of physical organisms are one and the same thing, although the molecular arrangement of the physical may be entirely opposite to the metallic on their aggregations; that the harmonious chords induced by sympathetic positive vibration permeate the molecules in each, notwithstanding, and bring about the perfect equation of any differentiation that may exist - in one the same as in the other - and thus they become one and the same medium for sympathetic transmission; that the etheric, or will-flow, is of a tenuity coincident to the condition governing the seventh subdivision of matter, a condition of subtlety that readily and instantaneously permeates all forms of aggregated matter, from air to solid hammered steel, the velocity of the permeation being the same with the one as with the other; that the tenuity of the etheric flow is so infinitely fine that a magnifying glass, the power of which would enlarge the smallest grain of sand to the size of the sun, brought to bear upon it would not make its structure visible to us; and that, light traversing space at the speed of two hundred thousand miles per second, a distance requiring light a thousand centuries to reach would be transversed by the etheric flow in an indefinite fragment of a second.

11th. Keely has given such proof of genius as should bring all scientists who approach him into that attitude of mind which would lead them to receive without prejudice the evidence of the truth of the claims he offers.

Genius has been defined as an extraordinary power of synthetic creation. Another definition of the man of genius is, the man who unceasingly cultivates and perfects such great natural aptitudes and facilities as he has been endowed with at his birth. No man has ever lived on this earth who, according to these qualifications, so deserved to be known and acknowledged as a man of genius as John Worrell Keely. History will determine whether he is a man of genius or "a charlatan?," as some scientists still persist in calling him. It is easier, as has been said, to accuse a man of fraud than to account for unknown phenomena. A system of doctrine can be legitimately refuted only upon its own principles, viz., by disproving its facts and invalidating the principles deduced from them. Abercrombie? said that the necessary caution which preserves us from credulity should not be allowed to engender scepticism, - that both of these extremes are equally unworthy of a mind which devotes itself with candor or the discovery of truth. (see Was Keely a Fraud)

"We must not decide that a thing is impossible," says Lebrun?, "because of the common belief that it cannot exist; for the opinion of man cannot set limits to the operations of Nature, nor to the power of the Almighty. He who attempts to hold up to contempt a scientific subject of which he is profoundly ignorant has but small pretensions to the character of a philosopher." Galileo said, after pronouncing his abjuration, "E pur si muove" ("But it does move"). What signified to him the opinion of men, when Nature confirmed his discovery? Of what value were their prejudices or their wisdom in opposition to her immutable laws? Kedzie?, speculating upon the nature of force, writes, "Molecules and masses act precisely as they are acted on; they are governed by the iron instead of the golden rule. They do unto others as others have done unto them. Whence comes this energy? Not from atoms, but from the Creator, in the beginning."

The Duke of Argyll? says, "We know nothing of the ultimate seat of force. Science, in the modern doctrine of the conservation of energy and the convertibility of forces, is already getting something like a firm hold of the idea that all kinds of force are but forms or manifestations of some one central force, arising from one fountain-head of power."

12th. Keely's researches have taught him that this one fountain-head is none other than the omnipotent and all-pervading Will Force of the Almighty, which- creates, up holds, guides, and governs the universe. "The whole world-process," says Von Hartmann?, "in its context is only a logical process; but in its existence it is a continued act of will."

Lilly? says, "This is what physical law means. Reason and will are inseparably united in the universe as they are in idea. If we will anything, it is for some reason. In contemplating the structure of the universe, we cannot resist the conclusion that the whole is founded upon a distinct idea." Keely holds to the harmony of this "distinct idea" throughout creation, and he demonstrates by vibratory machinery that all forces are indestructible, immaterial, homogeneous entities, having their origin and unity in one great intelligent personal will force.

Were it not for this will force eternally flowing into all created forms, the entire universe would disappear. As the workman employs his instrument to accomplish his designs, so Omnipotence may be said, in all reverence, to regulate His systems of worlds through and by the vibratory ether which He has created to serve His purpose. Well did Hertz reason when he wrote, "Soon the question set by modern physics will be, 'Are not all things due to conditions of ether?'" He had never heard of the toiler on this side of the Atlantic, when, after his own discovery, in 1888, that ether was imprisoned and used in every electro-magnetic engine, without this fact having been even so much as suspected by a single scientist, he wrote, in the Revue Scientifique?, "We have gained a greater height than ever, and we possess a solid basis which will facilitate the ascent, in the research of new truths. The road which is open to us is not too steep, and the next resting-point does not appear inaccessible. Moreover, the crowds, of researches are full of ardor. We must therefore welcome with confidence all the efforts that are being made in this direction."

Keely has found no "resting-point" in his researches of a lifetime; and, instead of being "welcomed with confidence" by his fellow-researches in science, he has suffered at their hands more than will ever be known by his detractors. Keely's discoveries would have died with him, through the calumnies of these same scientists, as far as demonstration was concerned, had not a company been formed, in the early days of his inventions, which for many years furnished him with the necessary funds, expecting almost immediate financial success. The sneers of men of science crying "Charlatan," the ridicule of the public press and the denunciations of the ignorant have been mighty factors in debasing the value of the shares of the company. The courage, faith, and contributing capacity of nearly all the stockholders have given out; and it is fortunate that now Mr. Keely's work of evolution has at last reached the point where he is able to convince those scientists of his integrity whose minds are broad enough to conform to what Herbert Spencer? has said is the first condition of success in scientific research,-viz., "an honest receptivity, and willingness to abandon all preconceived notions, however cherished, if they be found to contradict the truth."

Keely may be said to have spent years of his valuable time in giving exhibitions whereby to raise the funds needed for his scientific researches. Again and again has he taken apart his various machines, to show their interior construction to the sceptical; and what this means, in the attendant delay, will be better understood when he has made known how slight a thing, by the laws of sympathetic association, may retard his progress for days, even for weeks.

Take, for example, his last experience with his preliminary commercial engine, to which, before he had completed his graduation, he was induced, in November 1889, to apply a brake, to show what resistance the vibratory current could bear under powerful friction. A force sufficient to stop a train of cars, it was estimated, did not interfere with its running; but under additional strain a "thud" was heard, and the shaft of the engine was twisted.

The engine should not have been submitted to such a test until after the differentiation had been equated, and perfect control in reversions established. And yet, so often has Keely made what seemed to be disasters an advantage in the end, it is possible that the interruption and delay may enable him to produce a perfect engine sooner than he would have done on this model. The world will never know how many mechanical difficulties Keely has conquered before attaining his present degree of success, in which he thinks he has mastered all that pertains to the principle of the force that he is dealing with, so far as necessary for commercial purposes, the difficulties that he still has to contend with being merely the minor ones of mechanical detail. The fact that so much of Mr. Keely's success, in conducting his experiments when giving exhibitions, depends upon the complete perfection of his instruments, is one of the strongest arguments that could be advanced in proof of the genuineness of his claims. Has any one ever heard of a performer in legerdemain who, after assembling an audience to witness his tricks, announced that something was wrong with his conjuring apparatus and that he was unable to exhibit his dexterity? Feats of legerdemain can be performed, night after night, year in and year out, without any hitch on the part of the operator; but all who are conversant with the failures attendant upon a certain order of experiments, as for instance in the liquefying of oxygen gas, will be able to appreciate the uncertainty which characterizes the action of Mr. Keely's instruments at times.

It is only by progressive experimental research that knowledge of the laws governing Nature's operations can be gained, and a system evolved to perpetuate such knowledge. The hypothesis of to-day must be discarded to-morrow, if further research proves its fallacy. Is it not, then, another strong argument in favour of Keely's integrity that, confessing ignorance of the laws that govern the force he has discovered, he has plodded on through all these years, experimenting upon its nature, with instruments of his own invention, which from their delicate and imperfect construction are uncertain in their operations, until he has so improved the defective machine as to make it a stepping-stone, by which he ascends to perfection? Take the imperfect comparison of a ladder: no workman can attain the summit in one effort; he must mount step by step.

To quote from Keely's writings, "The mathematics of vibratory etheric science, both pure and applied, require long and arduous research. It seems to me that no man's life is long enough to cover more than the introductory branch. The theory of elliptic functions, the calculus of probabilities, are but pygmies in comparison to a science which requires the utmost tension of the human mind to grasp. But let us wait patiently for the light that will come, that is even now dawning."*

On the 28th of May, 1889, Mr. Keely's workshop was visited by several men interested to see and judge for themselves of the nature of his researches. Among them were Professor Leidy?, of the University of Pennsylvania, and James M. Willcox, author of "Elemental Philosophy." After seeing the experiments in acoustics, and the production, storage, and discharge of the ether. Mr. Willcox remarked that no one who had witnessed all that they had seen in the line of associative vibration, under the same advantages, could assert any fraud on the part of Keely without convicting himself of the rankest folly. These gentlemen met Mr. Keely with their minds open to conviction, though with strong prejudices against the discovery of any unknown force. They treated him as if he were all that he is, keeping out of sight whatever doubts they may have had of the genuineness of his claims as a discoverer; and, in the end, all who were present expressed their appreciation of his courtesy in answering the questions asked, and their admiration of what he has accomplished on his unknown path. In doing this, they were simply doing justice to him and to themselves, - to that self-respect which leads men to respect the rights of others, and to do unto others as they would be done by. Had they questioned Keely's integrity, or betrayed doubts of his honesty of purpose, he would at once have assumed the defensive, and would have informed them that he has no wish to conduct experiments for scientists who are ready to give their opinions of his theories before having heard them propounded, or of his experiments before witnessing them. When Keely's system of "sympathetic vibration" is made known ("sympathetic seeking" Mr. Willcox would call it), it will be seen how sensitive Mr. Keely's instruments are to the vibrations caused by street-noises, to vibration of air from talking in the operating room, to touch even, as well as why it is that, although he is willing to take apart and explain the construction of his instruments in the presence of investigators, he objects to having them handled by others than himself, after they have been. "harmonized," or "sensitized," or "graduated."

Mr. Keely is his own worst enemy. When suspected of fraud he acts as if he were a fraud; and in breaking up his vibratory microscope and other instruments which he had been years in perfecting, at the time he was committed to prison in 1888, he laid himself open to the suspicion that his instruments are but devices with which he cunningly deceives his patrons. Yet these same instruments he has, since their reconstruction, dissected and explained to those who approached him in the proper spirit. It is only when he has been subjected to insulting suspicious by arrogant scientists that he refuses to explain his theories, and to demonstrate their truth, as far as it is in his power to do so. "Keely may be on the right track, after all," remarked an English scientist, after Prof. Hertz had made known his researches on the structure of ether; "for if we have imprisoned the ether without knowing it, why may not Keely know what he has got a hold of?"

Norman Lockyer, in his "Chemistry of the Sun," confirms Keely's theories when he writes, "The law which connects radiation with absorption and at once enables us to read the riddle set by the sun and stars is, then, simply the law of 'sympathetic vibration.'"

"It is remarkable," says Horace W. Smith?, "that in countries far distant from each other, different men have fallen into the same tracks of science, and have made similar and correspondent discoveries, at the same period of time, without the least communication with each other." So has it been in all periods of progress and in all branches of science, from the discoveries of Euclid? and Archimedes? down to those of Galileo and Descartes? and Bacon?, and, in later days, of Gilbert? and Newton and Leibnitz?, then Benjamin Franklin| and Collison? and Von Kliest? and Muschenbrock?; and now Keely and Hertz and Fepuy? and Rucker? and Lockyer are examples. Never has a discovery leading to a new system been begun and perfected by the same individual so far as Keely is doing; but, as Morley? has said, "the representative of a larger age must excel in genius all predecessors."

The application of his discovery to the service of humanity is the aim and end of Keely's efforts; his success means "vastly more than the most sanguine to-day venture to predict," promising "a true millennial introduction into the unseen universe, and the glorious life that every man, Christian or sceptic, optimist or pessimist, would gladly hope for and believe possible." (Thurston?.)

Not the least among the ultimate blessings to our race which Keely's discovery foreshadows is the deeper insight that it will bestow into the healing power of the finer forces of nature, embracing cures of brain and nerve disorders that are now classed with incurable diseases.

Only a partial answer has been given to the question, "What has Keely done for science?" But enough has been said to convey some idea of the subtle nature of the force he is dealing with, and of the cause of the delays which have again and again disappointed the inventor, as well as the too sanguine hopes of immediate commercial success which have animated the officers and stockholders of "The Keely Motor Company." Keely has no secret to wrest from him. Instead of "Keely's Secret," it should be called "Nature's Secret;" for the problem has still to be worked out, the solution of which will make it "Keely's Secret;" and until this problem is fully solved to the inventor's satisfaction for commercial application, Keely has no secret that he is not willing to disclose, as far as it is in his power to do so.

See Also

Keely and His Discoveries
Keelys Accomplishments
Keelys Mechanical Inventions and Instruments
Sympathetic Polar Flows

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