Fullscreen
Print

Ion Energies from Atomic Cluster Explosions

Electron–ion collisions heat up the electrons efficiently, but not the ions. This can be seen from the electron–ion equilibration time. For typical nanoplasma conditions and for initially cold ions, it is in excess of 30 ps – much longer than the nanoplasma disassembly time. In other words, there is insufficient time for the electron energy to be transferred to the ions through collisions. Instead, the ions gain energy in the hydrodynamic expansion (where the thermal energy of the electrons is converted to radial motion ion kinetic energy) and/or through Coulomb explosion. For a hydrodynamic expansion at the plasma sound speed, the mean ion energy will be of order

See formula (7) page 314

where (Z) is the mean ion charge state. This can be on the order of 40–50 keV for multi-keV electron temperatures and highly charged ions (Z) ≈ 20 – see Section 4.3), consistent with the mean ion en- ergies observed [22]. Coulomb explosion is the main process by which ions gain kinetic energy for molecules and small clusters in intense laser fields [9]. This is important for large, low Z clusters where charge build-up is substantial. For high Z clusters, it provides an explanation for the fastest ions observed [44]. [TD69.pdf, page 314]

See Also

3.14 - Vortex Theory of Atomic Motions
3.23 - Hydrodynamic Equations - Vortex Motions
5.8.5 - The complete Contraction Expansion Cycle is as follows
9.27 - Expansion and Contraction
13.04 - Atomic Subdivision
16.15 - Negative Electricity is Expansion
Atomic
Atomic Cluster Heating
Atomic Cluster Ionization
Atomic Cluster X-Ray Emission
Atomic Clusters
Atomic Force
atomic mass
atomic number
atomic theory
atomic triplet
atomic weight
diatomic
Egyptian fraction expansion
expansion
Figure 13.06 - Atomic Subdivision
Figure 14.10 - Proportionate Tonal Relations dictate Contraction or Expansion
Figure 3.28 - Compression and Expansion Forces in Gyroscopic Motions
Figure 9.10 - Phases of a Wave as series of Expansions and Contractions
Figure 9.5 - Phases of a Wave as series of Expansions and Contractions
Force-Atomic
Formation of Atomic Clusters
Hydrodynamic Expansion
InterAtomic
Laser Cluster Interactions
Law of Atomic Dissociation
Law of Atomic Pitch
Law of Oscillating Atomic Substances
Law of Pitch of Atomic Oscillation
Law of Variation of Atomic Oscillation by Electricity
Law of Variation of Atomic Oscillation by Sono-thermism
Law of Variation of Atomic Oscillation by Temperature
Law of Variation of Atomic Pitch by Electricity and Magnetism
Law of Variation of Atomic Pitch by Rad-energy
Law of Variation of Atomic Pitch by Temperature
Law of Variation of Pitch of Atomic Oscillation by Pressure
Models of Laser Cluster Interactions
monatomic
Nanoplasma
subatomic


Page last modified on Wednesday 05 of June, 2013 03:27:31 MDT

Search Wiki PageName