Probably this is the area that Klimov and his colleagues have been diverted into. It is an extraordinary weapons development, but of course it also keeps them out of free energy work.
Recall that Klimov et al. conclusively proved, using laser light input, that real systems can be built that freely extract and use excess EM energy directly from the seething virtual state vacuum, enabling COP = 200% to 700%. Their work was also independently replicated and validated by two great national laboratories: (1) LANL and (2) NREL.
Thus the ability to freely extract and use excess EM energy directly from the vacuum has been scientifically proven forever.
Their epochal breakthrough work was also reported in leading physics journals and leading nanocrystalline journals.
Now the question is: "When - if ever - are they going to allow the development of COP>1.0 and also self-powering energy systems to completely solve the world's energy crisis quickly and permanently?"
Victor Klimov in Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico has constructed a solar cell which can absorb the light of a specific wave length in such a way, that one photon can energize more than one electron. As soon as the electron absorbs a photon, it disappears for a very short moment into the quantum field. Being in the virtual state the electron can borrow energy from the vacuum and thereafter appears again in our reality. Now the electron can energize up to 7 other electrons. This leads to a theoretical coefficient of performance (COP) of 700%. A COP = 200% can be readily achieved and it has been. The experiment has also been replicated successfully by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden Colorado. Herb Brody, "Solar Power - Seriously Souped Up." New Scientist, May 27, 2006, p 45.
Quoting: “Make solar cells as small as a molecule; and you get more than you bargained for. Could this be the route to limitless clean power?".
Comment by T.E.B.: Note that the super-excited electron, after emerging from the seething virtual state vacuum immersion, actually splits into two or more electrons! So the output current of the solar cell process is freely amplified by excess energy from the local virtual state vacuum. Note that at about COP = 3.0, one could conceivably add clamped positive feedback of one of those output electrons back to the "dive back into the seething virtual state vacuum" input, replacing the original electron input, and the unit would be "self-powering" (powered by energy from the vacuum) while putting out the other two electrons as output.
Or by using some of the output current in a radiation-producing process, one could have the positive feedback input as a radiation photon, to replace the initial solar input entirely. In this fashion, once "jump started" by some source of solar radiation, the resulting "solar panel" system would become totally self-powering, taking all its input and output energy directly from the seething vacuum itself.
Additional references; Richard D. Schaller, Vladimir M. Agranovich and Victor I. Klimov; "High-efficiency carrier multiplication through direct photogeneration of multi-excitons via virtual single-exciton states." Nature Physics Vol. 1, 2005, pp. 189-194.
Richard D. Schaller, Melissa A. Petruska, and Victor I. Klimov; "Effect of electronic structure on carrier multiplication efficiency: Comparative study of PbSe and CdSe nanocrystals"; Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 87, 2005, 253102.
Richard D. Schaller, Milan Sykora, Jeffrey M. Pietryga, and Victor I. Klimov, "Seven Excitons at a Cost of One: Redefining the Limits for Conversion Efficiency of Photons into Charge Carriers," Nano Lett. Vol. 6, 2006, p. 424.
Victor I. Klimov, "Spectral and Dynamical Properties of Multiexcitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals," Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2007, p. 635.
M. C. Hanna, A. J. Nozik. "Solar conversion efficiency of photovoltaic and photoelectrolysis cells with carrier multiplication absorbers," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 100, No. 7, 2006, p. 07450.
Sung Jin Kim, Won Jin Kim, Yudhisthira Sahoo, Alexander N. Cartwright, Paras N. Prasad, "Multiple exciton generation and electrical extraction from a PbSe quantum dot photoconductor," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 3, 2008, p. 031107.
Alberto Franceschetti, Yong Zhang, "Multiexciton Absorption and Multiple Exciton Generation in CdSe Quantum Dots," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 100, No. 13, 2008, p. 136805.
G. Allan, C. Delerue, "Role of impact ionization in multiple exciton generation in PbSe nanocrystals," Physical Review B, Vol. 73 (20), 2006, p. 205423.
Hsiang-Yu Chen, Michael K. F. Lo, Guanwen Yang, Harold G. Monbouquette, Yang Yang, "Nanoparticle-assisted high photoconductive gain in composites of polymer and fullerene," Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 3 (9), 2008, p. 543.
M.C. Beard, R.J. Ellingson, "Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor nanocrystals: Toward efficient solar energy conversion," Laser & Photonics Review, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2008, p. 377.
Quoting: "Now Victor Klimov and colleagues at the Alamos National Laboratory have designed nanocrystals with cores and shells made from different semiconductor materials in such a way that electrons and holes are physically isolated from each other. The scientists said in such engineered nanocrystals, only one exciton per nanocrystal is required for optical amplification. That, they said, opens the door to practical use in laser applications." ["Scientists Create New Type of Nanocrystal," PHYSORG.COM, Nanotechnology, May 24, 2007.
Seo, Hye-won; Tu, Li-wei; Ho, Cheng-ying; Wang, Chang-kong; Lin, Yuan-ting. "Multi-Junction Solar Cell," United States Patent 20080178931, July 31, 2008. A photovoltaic device having multi-junction nanostructures deposited as a multi-layered thin film on a substrate. Preferably, the device is grown as InxGa1-xN multi-layered junctions with the gradient x, where x is any value in the range from zero to one. The nanostructures are preferably 5-500 nanometers and more preferably 10-20 nanometers in diameter. The values of x are selected so that the bandgap of each layer is varied from 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV to match as nearly as possible the solar energy spectrum of 0.4 eV-4 eV.
J. R. Minkel, "Brighter Prospects for Cheap Lasers in Rainbow Colors," Scientific American (website), May 25, 2007.
Quoting Klimov, Victor?: "Carrier multiplication actually relies upon very strong interactions between electrons squeezed within the tiny volume of a nanoscale semiconductor particle. That is why it is the particle size, not its composition that mostly determines the efficiency of the effect. In nanosize crystals, strong electron-electron interactions make a high-energy electron unstable. This electron only exists in its so-called 'virtual state' for an instant before rapidly transforming into a more stable state comprising two or more electrons." [Lead project scientist Victor Klimov, quoted in "Nanocrystals May Provide Boost for Solar Cells, Solar Hydrogen Production," Green Car Congress, 4 Oct., 2008.]
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